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Level 131

Grammar Definitions: Intermediate III

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past participle clause
a non–finite clause with a past participle forming the (first part of the) verb phrase. See examples under participle clause.
phatic communion
communication (typically dialogue) whose function it is to establish or maintain social relationships rather than exchanging information.
the existence of several (related) meanings in a single word. E.g. paper 'material’, ‘newspaper', 'essay'
a term relating to adjective/adverb comparison. The positive form of an adjective or adverb is its base form, e.g. good, bad, beautiful, comfortable, late, slowly.
pragmatic function
the meaning of a word/phrase/sentence in actual communication
the syntactic function in the clause that is realized by a verb phrase. In EGTU the term 'verb' is used instead.
presentative construction
a construction with the existential there.
quantifying determiner
a determiner which specifies the number or amount of something. E.g. two pounds, many people, much room, little food, some books.
reciprocal pronoun
a pronoun which implies mutuality, viz. each other and one another.
a thing/person/phenomenon that a word refers to.
referential it
it used as a pronoun, with reference to something that has been mentioned before (anaphoric reference) or to something that will be specified later (cataphoric reference).
regional variation
variation in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, etc depending on where people come from.
a style of language characteristic of a certain situation or a certain communicative purpose. Registers generally differ in formality (as regards grammar as well as vocabulary).
regular verb
a verb which forms the past tense and the past participle by adding (e)d to the base form. E.g. walk – walked – walked; fade – faded – faded.
social variation
variation in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar etc. according to the social standing of a speaker.
specifying genitive
an s–genitive with determiner function, e.g. Tom's room, Mary's little lamb, today's paper. Compare classifying genitive.
structural parallelism
the use of the same syntactic pattern in successive sentences. Structural parallelism can be a means of creating cohesion in a text.
superordinate term
In a relation of hyponymy, the superordinate term is the word which has the widest reference. E.g. building (in relation to cottage, house), make–up (in relation to lipstick, eye–liner).
a sense relation between two words. If two words are synonymous, they have (essentially) the same meaning. E.g. nice/cosy, rich/wealthy, and picture/image.
an infinitive verb phrase with the infinitive marker to.
see clefting. E.g. What I told him was to move out.
a pronoun beginning in wh– and introducing a wh–question or an indirect question. Wh–pronouns are what, which, who(m),whose . Compare relative pronouns.
the smallest linguistic unit that can have a syntactic function. A word has an expression side (combination of sounds, or of letters) and a content side (an independent meaning).
myself, ourselves
Name the first person reflexive and intensive pronouns
Name the third person singular personal pronouns
he, him, his, she, her, hers, it, its