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see progressive aspect.
a way of writing grammar with the emphasis on describing how a language is actually used rather than aiming at correcting or preventing mistakes.
a passive voice construction which refers to an action. E.g. The house was redecorated ( Huset ble pusset opp). Compare stative passive.
a dummy (non–referring) it in clauses about weather, temperature, time, and distance, and in cleft constructions.
end weight principle
the tendency for long and heavy clause elements to be placed at the end of a clause.
(the study of)the historical origins of a word.
a clause with a finite verb (phrase) in it. All main clauses are finite, while subordinate clauses may be either finite or non–finite.
agreement between the grammatical form of the verb and the grammatical form of the subject. See also concord.
homographs are two or more words which have the same spelling, but different, unrelated meanings. E.g.down (feathers), down (downward); pole (stick) pole (as in North Pole).
a relation between two words which are spelt the same (homograph) or sound the same (homophone), but have different, unrelated meanings.
a sense relation between two words, by which the reference of one includes the reference of the other. E.g. flower/tulip, animal/horse, building/tower, vehicle/car.
the word to (in front of a verb in its base form).
the tendency for given elements to precede new ones, so that a sentence starts with given information and has the new information at the end.
a (peripheral) clause element such as oh, hello, yes, no. Inserts usually convey an interpersonal or an emotive meaning. They are always optional.
an adverb which functions as a modifier in an adjective phrase or adverb phrase. E.g. very good, terribly ill, quite happily.
used about a word order whereby the whole verb phrase or an auxiliary occurs in front of the subject. See subject–verb inversion and subject–auxiliary inversion.
a verb which refers to an action, activity, event, or state, and is capable of being the main verb in a verb phrase.
a passive construction which includes an expressed agent realized as a prepositional phrase with by). E.g. That sonnet was written by Shakespeare. Compare short passive.
language/terminology used to talk about language.
a two–place verb which occurs with a direct object in addition to the subject. Compare ditransitive and complex transitive verb.
a word class consisting of words representing numbers. Cardinal numbers are e.g. one, five, thirty–eight, while ordinal numbers are e.g. first, fifth, thirty–eighth.
evading an issue by deliberately expressing oneself in an obscure manner (in order to avoid telling the truth or acknowledging unpleasant facts).
in grammar, an obligatory element is one which cannot be taken away without making the phrase or clause ungrammatical.
an optional element is one which may be removed from a clause or a phrase without making it ungrammatical.