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Level 6

HEALTH MEDICINE AND FOOD


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to take an overdose
to take too much of a drug
side effects
unwanted secondary effects of a drug
adverse
negative
a streaming cold
a heavy cold
to shake off a cold
to get rid of a cold
be in poor health
not be very well
an infectious disease
an disease caught from someone with that disease
a rare illness
an illness that seldom occurs
critically ill
extremely / dangerously ill
fight for one's life
in danger of dying
fall into / come out of a coma
become unconscious; regain consciousness
a massive heart attack
a very serious heart attack
untimely / premature death
death at to early an age
international cuisines
foods that are common in certain countries
nutrients
substances in food that our body processes in order to function.
good nutrition
a well-balanced diet combined with regular physical activity is a cornerstone of good health
whole grains
foods made of them contain all the essential parts and naturally occurring nutrients of the entire grain seed in their original proportions.
fibre
another important component of healthy diet. It’s found in cereals, fruits, and vegetables, and contributes to keeping our digestive system healthy.
eat the rainbow
a simple way to remind us that we need to consume more varieties of vegetables of all colours.
obesity
overweight, adiposity
poor dietary habits
eating and drinking habits that are not recommended
unhealthy eating patterns
harmful foods and beverages usually consumed
eating disorders
any of a range of psychological disorders characterized by abnormal or disturbed eating habits (such as anorexia nervosa).
obese
opposite of lean
engineered food
modified food
processed food
food that has been altered from its natural state in some way, either for safety reasons or convenience
food contents
fat, oil, protein, fibre, sugar, salt, additives
syrupy
having the appearance or quality of syrup; thick or sweet;
sugary
tasting or looking like sugar;
crispy
pleasantly thin, dry, and easily broken: having a pleasantly crisp outer layer
bitter
having a strong and often unpleasant flavour that is the opposite of sweet;
juicy
containing a lot of juice;
sour
having an acid taste that is like the taste of a lemon
zesty
having a strong, pleasant, and somewhat spicy flavour;
chewy
something requiring to use your teeth to cut food into small pieces before you swallow it;
spicy
flavoured with or containing strong spices and especially ones that cause a burning feeling in your mouth;
peppery
containing pepper or having the qualities of pepper
ambrosial
something extremely pleasing to taste or smell;
crunchy
having a hard texture and making a loud sound when chewed or crushed: not soft or mushy
delicious
very pleasant to taste
savoury
opposite of sweet, usually salty
unflavoured
without flavour additives
an allergy
a medical condition that causes someone to become sick after eating, touching, or breathing something that is harmless to most people
intolerance
[noon] exceptional sensitivity (as to a drug); specifically: inability to properly metabolize or absorb a substance;
bulimia
a serious physical and emotional illness in which people and especially young women eat large amounts of food and then cause themselves to vomit in order to not gain weight;
anorexia
a serious physical and emotional illness in which an abnormal fear of being fat leads to very poor eating habits and dangerous weight loss
lactose intolerance
the state when the body cannot easily digest lactose, a type of natural sugar found in milk and dairy products;
an addiction
a strong and harmful need to regularly have something (such as a food) or do something (such as gamble);
famine
a situation in which many people do not have enough food to eat
to grill
to cook (food) on a metal frame over fire
to steam
to cook with steam
to stir fry
- to fry (something) quickly over high heat while stirring it constantly;
to deep fry
to cook (food) in a deep layer of oil or fat
to boil
to cook (something) in water that is boiling
to broil
to cook by direct exposure to radiant heat
to mince
to cut food into very small pieces
to roast
to cook food with dry heat in an oven or over a fire
to bite
to seize with teeth or jaws so as to eat something;
to chew
to use your teeth to cut food into small pieces before you swallow it
to savour
to enjoy the taste or smell of something
to swallow
to take (something) into your stomach through your mouth and throat
to digest
to change (food that you have eaten) by a biological process into simpler forms that can be used by the body;
to indulge
to allow (yourself) to have or do something as a special pleasure;
to devour
to eat up greedily or ravenously
To be dying of hunger
exaggeration of saying that you are hungry
To have a sweet tooth
to love sugary foods
To take the biscuit
refers to something very annoying or irritating
To know on which side your bread is buttered
to know where your interests lie
To take the bread out of smb’s mouth
take away smb’s means to earn a living
To butter someone up
to flatter, be very nice to someone, usually for selfish reasons
Like chalk and cheese
completely different
Cry over spilled milk
get upset over something that cannot be changed
That’s the way the cookie crumbles
[idiom] that’s the way it is and nothing can be done about it
to burst with flavour
to be extremely delicious, full of flavour
feel like a brick is sitting in my gut
feeling of being very full, a bit uncomfortable
heaping
overflowing
sparkling conversation
witty, charming, lively talk
ready-meal
a meal sold in a pre-cooked form that only requires reheating.
takeaway food
food which is ordered and made in a restaurant and is then taken away to be eaten at home or elsewhere
home-cooked food
food cooked at home from individual ingredients
the main meal
the most important meal of the day, usually eaten in the evening
to be full up
[informal] to eat to the point that you can no longer eat any more
to be starving hungry
an exaggerated way of saying you are very hungry
to bolt something down
to eat something very quickly
to be dying of hunger
an exaggerated way of saying you are hungry
to eat a balanced diet
to eat the correct types and amounts of food
to eat like a horse
to eat a lot
to follow a recipe
to cook a meal using instructions
to foot the bill
[idiom] to pay the bill
a fussy eater
somebody who has their own very high standards about what to eat
to grab a bite to eat
[idiom] to eat something quickly (when you’re in a rush)
to make your mouth water
to make you feel very hungry for something
to play with your food
to push food around the plate to avoid eating it
to have a quick snack
to eat a small amount of food between meals
a slap up meal
a meal is especially large and good:
to spoil your appetite
to eat something that will stop you feeling hungry when it’s meal-time.
to tuck into
to eat something with pleasure
to wine and dine
to entertain someone by treating them to food and drink
to work up an appetite
to do physical work that leads to you becoming hungry
calories
units of measurement of energy in food
protein
a compound which is an essential part of living cells, one of the elements in food which you need to keep the human body working properly
carbohydrate
a chemical substance containing carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
fat
a white substance from plants or animals which can be used for cooking.
fibre
roughage, matter in food which cannot be digested and passes out of body.
cholesterol
a fatty substance found in fats and oils, also produced by the liver and forming an essential part of all cells.
mineral
substance which is found in food, but which can also be dug out of the earth
malnourished
The result of not having enough to eat, or the result of eating too much of the wrong sort of food
nutrition
What needs to be eaten to sustain a person's body; food, esp. food containing the required vitamins and energy
allergic to
having a bad reaction to a substance
genetically modified
(adj.) altering the composition of cells to change certain characteristics
organic
(adj.) cultivated naturally without using any chemical fertilisers or pesticides
battery chickens
chickens living in a small cage
free-range
kept in natural conditions, with freedom of movement
harvest
the process or period of gathering in crops
scarcity
the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage
salmonella
a bacterium that occurs mainly in the gut, especially a serotype causing food poisoning
listeria
a type of bacterium which infects humans and other warm-blooded animals through contaminated food.
malnutrition
lack of proper nutrition, caused by not having enough to eat, not eating enough of the right things, or being unable to use the food that one does eat.
to do sport
to do exercises
rheumatism
pains or stiffness in the joints or muscles can be very difficult to live with
arthritis
The painful inflammation of a joint that may require surgery
a cardiovascular disease
illness which affects the circulation of blood are particularly common with people who are overweight
cholesterol
this is deposited on the walls of the arteries and can block them
to have sedentary lifestyle
to be inactive, accustomed to sitting
a stress-related illness
physical or mental problems that sometimes seem to be brought on by or made worse by stress.
vulnerable to illness
the immune system is not properly developed and can be easily hurt
therapeutic
[adj] able to cure or relieve the disorder
conventional medicine
modern pills and tablets
traditional medicine
old-fashioned cures for illnesses
holistic medicine
treatments which involve the whole person, including their mental health, rather than just dealing with the symptoms of illness
a consultant
a medical specialist attached to a hospital
a surgeon
a doctor specializing in surgery
active
energetic
a welfare state
[noun] a social system based on the assumption by a political state of primary responsibility for the individual and social welfare of its citizens
a private healthcare
healthcare and medicine provided by entities other than the government.
alternative medicine
medical treatments that are used instead of traditional (mainstream) therapies.
a check-up
a doctor's examination to ensure that you are healthy
a sore throat
a pain in the throat
epidemic
a disease affecting a disproportionately large number of individuals within the population
an epidemic breakout
epidemic starts suddenly or strikes
to reach epidemic proportions
(an epidemic) to reach a large scale
to diagnose
to recognize a disease or illness
deterioration
[noun] the process of something getting worse
a chronic disease
a disease existing frequently or most of the time
to infect
to cause somebody to be affected by a disease
to recover
to return to normal condition or get back from being ill
symptoms
changes in your body or mind showing you are not healthy
the onset of symptoms
the initial existence or symptoms of a disease the onset of scarlet fever
to prevent something
to act ahead of something
a vaccine
an injection to protect against a particular disease
an ambulance
a vehicle that takes sick people to the hospital, especially in case of emergencies
a fatigue
[noun] a state of being very tired and exhausted
to feel poorly
to feel bad or sick
to have a filling
to have your tooth fixed when you have dental caries
to have a tooth out
to have your tooth pulled out
a heavy cold
a bad/severe cold
to make a speedy recovery
to recover fast
emergency measures
first aid
to perform surgery on
to operate
eye drops
liquid substances used for eye treatment
a syringe
a device made of a hollow tube and a needle that is used to force fluids into or take fluids out of the body
a dose of medicine
a dose of a substance that is used in treating disease or relieving pain and that is usually in the form of a pill or a liquid
a pill
a small, rounded object that you swallow and that contains medicine, vitamins, etc
shot / injection
the act or process of forcing a liquid medicine or drug into someone or something by using a special needle
a painkiller
a drug that decreases or removes pain that you feel in your body
an antibiotic
a drug that is used to kill harmful bacteria and to cure infections
a remedy
a medicine or treatment that relieves pain or cures a usually minor illness
an ophtalmologist
a doctor who studies and treats problems and diseases of the eye
a dentist
a person whose job is to care for people's teeth
a general practitioner
- a doctor whose work is not limited to a special area: a person who is not a specialist
a nurse
- a person who is trained to care for sick or injured people and who usually works in a hospital or doctor's office
Asthma
a physical condition that makes it difficult for someone to breathe
a bronchitis
an illness in which your bronchial tubes become sore or damaged and you cough a lot;
a cold
a common illness that affects the nose, throat, and eyes and that usually causes coughing, sneezing, etc
a flu (influenza)
a common disease that is caused by a virus and that causes fever, weakness, body aches, and breathing problems
a cough
- a physical condition or illness that causes someone to cough
diabetes
a serious disease in which the body cannot properly control the amount of sugar in your blood because it does not have enough insulin
food poisoning
sickness caused by bacteria or chemicals in food
a fracture
the result of breaking something : a crack or break;
a fever
a disease that causes an increase in body temperature
a heart attack
a sudden painful and dangerous condition in which your heart stops beating properly;
a heart stroke
a heart condition caused by the interruption of flow of blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of blood vessels in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke)
an infection
a disease caused by germs that enter the body
insomnia
the condition of not being able to sleep
a cut
a wound on a person's body that is made by something sharp
a bruise
a dark and painful area on your skin that is caused by an injury
to stem from
to come or derive from, often used for negative things_Grow out of, have roots in, originate in
inadequate development
insufficient or obstructed growth of the body
to put a strain on
[idiom] stress or overwork, physical or mental
an impairment
a damage of an ability
a poor diet
a lifestyle diet without sufficient nutrients
convenience food
food which is cooked in its packaging, usually in a microwave
to socialise
to meet with friends and other people in a friendly way
interpersonal skills
the skills of dealing with people successfully
to underperform
to perform below your peers or expectations
a regime, a programme
a planned system of exercise, diet or sport
to detoxify your body
to remove impurities and poisons
a sponsorship
a payment from a company to a sport or other activity in return for publicity
to ameliorate the physical effects
to make a problem less damaging
remedies
cures or answers to a problem or situation
an initiative
a new programme or idea, usually in government or business
to raise awareness
to make people more aware of or caring about an issue
a health warning
a notice on cigarette or alcohol packaging warning about the medical effects
a figurehead
a nominal leader or head without real power.
pursuits
hobbies or sports which people do for enjoyment
the digital era
the historical period characterized by technology which increases the speed and breadth of knowledge