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Level 22

TOWN and COUNTRY


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cosmopolitan
showing the influence of many different countries and cultures
metropolis
a big city, especially considered as somewhere that is very busy and exciting
inner-city
an area near the centre of a large city where a lot of poverty and other social problems exist
to breed crime
to produce crime
population explosion
a sudden, large increase in the size of a population
amenities
facilities, resources; any feature that provides comfort, convenience, or pleasure (restaurants etc)
infrastructure
the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or area, as transportation and communication systems, power plants, and schools.
cost of living
the average cost of food, clothing, and other necessary or usual goods and services paid by a person, family, etc., or considered as a standard by the members of a group.
anonymity
the state of being nameless
urban lifestyle
city life
Central Business District
the main business and commercial area of a town or city
peak periods
rush hours
urban sprawl
the spreading of urban developments (as houses and shopping centers) on undeveloped land near a city
commuters
They have a state-of-the-art underground system which could whisk commuters from the suburbs straight into the heart of the city.
city dweller
a person who lives in the city
melting pot
a place where different peoples, styles, theories, etc. are mixed together
building sites
an area where a structure is being constructed or repaired
pedestrian precinct
an area of a town restricted to pedestrians.
block of flats
a large building that is divided into apartments
housing estates
a residential area in which the houses have all been planned and built at the same time
rural lifestyle
country life
productive land
capable of producing crops
arable land
land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops
crops
cultivated plants that are grown on a large scale commercially, especially a cereal, fruit, or vegetable.
wheat
a cereal which is the most important kind grown in temperate countries, the grain of which is ground to make flour for bread, pasta, pastry, etc
oat
cereal plant with a loose, branched cluster of florets, cultivated in cool climates and widely used for animal feed
barley
a hardy cereal with coarse bristles extending from the ears, cultivated especially for use in brewing and stockfeed
prospect
the possibility or likelihood of some future event occurring
depopulation
substantially reduce the population of (an area).
prospects
[plural] chances of future success
investment
to put money into something hoping it will be profitable
conurbations
very large cities which have absorbed other towns
backwater
an area of a country where little of interest happens
rural depopulation
the long-term trend for people to migrate from the countryside to cities, leaving the rural areas with few people
scarcity
lack or shortage of something
far-flung
remote or far away
environmental awareness
an understanding of environmental issues
crop rotation
the process of using different fields each year to keep the soil healthy
animal husbandry
the management and care of farm animals by human beings, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed
to afflict
to affect (used for problems or diseases)
smallholders
= farmers managing very small farms, usually with their families
subsistence
adjective meaning ‘producing just enough to live on’
water bodies
inland areas of water (rivers, lakes, reservoirs etc)
forestry
the industry of growing and cutting trees
abundance
very high level of supply or availability of something
material considerations
concerns about money and material possessions
rural poverty
being extremely poor in the countryside