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800
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the new Western Empire. This marked the point at which Europe began to reintegrate. The Holy Roman Empire lasts for thousand years.
1054
Schism of Greek and Latin Christian Churches divides Christianity permanently into two geographical and denominational halves.
1088
First university founded in Bologna, Italy: the start of a modern conception of higher learning and universal knowledge.
1206
Genghis Khan begins his conquest of Asia. This has a major impact on Asian development and the movement of peoples.
1215
Magna Carta signed by King John at Runnymede: this is the origin of the modern concept of constitutional rule.
1453
Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks: Almost five hundred years of Turkish domination of the Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa and the Middle East begins.
1455
First book printed with moveable type: Johannes Gutenberg’s revolution in printing technology makes mass-market reading possible.
1492
Christopher Columbus discovers the New World, bringing the Americas into a global trading/cultural system.
1509
Invention of the watch: essential to a modern economy and administration, this introduces the concept of regular timekeeping.
1517
Martin Luther launches the Reformation. It is the start of Protestant Christianity and the idea of religious individualism.