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Invention of the wheel and plough in Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq); invention of the sail in Egypt: three fundamental inventions for trade, agriculture and exploration.
Invention of writing in Mesopotamia: the means to record and understand human history.
Founding of the first cities in Sumeria (present-day Iraq): origin of modern social and administrative structures.
Modern alphabet invented: the essential means of communication of complex concepts and culture.
Beginning of Greek civilisation: essential to Western heritage and the root of mathematics, philosophy, political thinking and medicine.
Foundation of Rome: the Roman Empire is a pillar of the modern age, producing ideas on justice, law, engineering and warfare.
Invention of ironworking: metallurgy is the key to further technical, economic and military developments.
Birth of Confucius, the founder of one of the world’s major philosophical systems.
Battle of Marathon: the Greeks repel a Persian invasion, securing the survival of Greek culture and science.
Birth of Buddha, founder of one of the world’s major religions.