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ˈ
Primary stress mark
ˌ
Secondary stress mark
n̩ l̩
Syllabic consonant mark.
e
Many dictionaries use ɛ instead of ____
hyphen
The ______ is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word
ellipsis
Sometimes native English speakers will entirely drop the sound of an unstressed syllable altogether, and not just reduce the pronunciation to the schwa sound. This is called an _______
Reductions
_________ occur when sounds are reduced or completely eliminated in words when spoken.
hasta
Reduction of 'has to'
wanna
Reduction of 'want to'
gonna
Reduction of ''going to"
im
In function words that begin with the letter 'h', the 'h' sound is often dropped. For example: "love him" becomes "love ___"
fer
For
r
Or
n
And
Some of us are.
Some ə us are.
most əv
most of
oud dah
out of
Linking
That's enough =>> That's senough
Contractions
I will ----> I'll
consonant clusters
a string of two or more consonants in a word is called ______ _______
t
In the consonant cluster 'sts', the /___/ can be dropped.
k
In the consonant cluster 'sks' the /___/ may be dropped.
content words
Words that have the most stress in English are called ______ ______. These words are important to express the main meaning of the sentence.
Function words
_______ ______ are those words that are weaker and shorter. These words are less important in expressing the meaning of the sentence.
stressed syllables
English is a stressed time language. The time it takes to say something in English depends on the number of ________ _______, not the number of syllables.
intonation and pitch
English speakers use ________ ____ ______ to focus the listeners attention on what is important in the message.
t
The 'ed' sound at the end of regular past tense verbs can have three sounds- '____', 'd', or 'uhd'.
voiceless
After _______ sound, the 'ed' is pronounced /t/ (except after /t/)
d
After voiced sounds, the 'ed' is pronounced /___/
d
vowel + t + vowel =>> vowel + ____ + vowel
quickly
vowel + d + vowel. The (d) is still pronounced with a d sound, but it is said very ______.
dif
'what if' =>> wha(d) ___
əd
In words that end in (t) or (d), the (ed) is pronounced as (____).
ʔ
glottal stop
consonant
In the negative, the (t) in (can't) is dropped and replaced with a /ʔ/ if the next sound is a ________.
ʔ
eaten >> ea__en
kn
In an affirmative (can), the can is pronounced as '____'
dosen'ʔ
wouldn't =>> wouldn'ʔ doesn't =>> ________.
Whaddaya doin'?
What are you doing?