Level 2
Level 1

Chapter 1


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abiotic
relating to non-living parts of an environment such as sunlight, soil, moisture, and temperature (1.1)
adaptations
characteristics that enable organisms to better survive and reproduce (1.1)
behavioural adaptation
what an organism does to survive in the unique conditions of its environment (1.1)
biodiversity
the variety of all living species of plants, animals, and micro- organisms on Earth (Unit 1 opener)
biome
the largest division of the biosphere, which includes large regions with similar biotic components (e.g., similar plants and animals) and similar abiotic com-ponents (e.g., similar temperature and amount of rainfall) (1.1)
biosphere
the thin layer of air, land, and water on or near Earth’s surface in which all living things on Earth exist (1.1)
biotic
relating to living organisms such as plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria (1.1)
climate
the average conditions of the atmosphere (e.g., precipitation, temperature, and humidity) in a large region over 30 years or more (1.1, 11.1)
climatograph
a graph of climate data for a specific region; the data are usually obtained over 30 years from local weather observation stations (1.1)
elevation
the height of a land mass above sea level (1.1)
latitude
the distance measured in degrees north or south from the equator (1.1)
physiological adaptation
a physical or chemical event that occurs within the body of an organism and enables survival (1.1)
structural adaptation
a physical feature of an organism’s body having a specific function that contributes to the survival of the organism (1.1)
terrestrial
relating to the land (e.g., land-based biomes) (1.1)
commensalism
a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped nor harmed (1.2)
community
all the populations of the different species that interact in a specific area or ecosystem (1.2)
competition
a harmful interaction between two or more organisms that can occur when organisms compete for the same resource (e.g., food) in the same location at the same time (1.2)
ecological hierarchy
the order of biotic interactions and relationships in an ecosystem: organism, population, community, ecosystem (1.2)
ecosystem
a part of a biome in which abiotic components interact with biotic components (1.2)
eutrophication
the process by which excess nutrients in aquatic ecosystems result in increased plant production and decay (1.2)
habitat
the place in which an organism lives (e.g., a nest or a burrow) (1.2)
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship between two organisms in which both organisms benefit (1.2)
niche
the special role an organism plays in an ecosystem, including the way in which it contributes to and fits into its environment (1.2)
nutrients
substances such as the chemicals nitrogen and phosphorus that are required by plants and animals for energy, growth, development, repair, or maintenance (1.2)
parasitism
a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and another is harmed (1.2)
photosynthesis
a process in which carbon dioxide enters the leaves of plants and reacts with water in the presence of sunlight to produce carbohydrates and oxygen; photosynthesis also occurs in some micro-organisms (1.2, 2.2)
population
all the members of a particular species within an ecosystem (1.2)
predation
predator–prey interactions in which one organism (the predator) eats all or part of another organism (the prey) (1.2)
species
a group of closely related organisms that can reproduce with one another (1.2)
symbiosis
the interaction between members of two different species that live together in a close association (1.2)