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abolition
end something
socialism
government should make economic decisions
Sepoy Rebellion
an 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India b/c of pig and cow fat on ammunition
British East India Company
a joint stock company that controlled most of India for almost 200 years
Berlin Conference
1884 meeting that divided Africa between European countries
Boxer Rebellion
1900 Chinese boxers rebel against foreigners controlling trade in China
Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter
Letter urging the Creole elites to rise up and challenge mercantilist policies
bourgeoisie
capitalist class who own most of society's wealth and means of production.
Simon Bolivar
leader of Latin American independence movements
capitalism
free markets; own your business
class struggle
Communist idea that working class fights against middle/upper class
French Declaration of the Rights of Man
French document from promising individual rights and liberties
imperialism
control another country by force
Industrial Revolution
starts in England because of large coal deposits
laissez-faire
"hands off" policy approach to economics
liberalism
political philosophy focused on equality and freedom
communism
government controls the means of production (and everything else in country)
Meiji Restoration
political program that brought modernization to Japan
proletariat
working class
Social Darwinism
racist idea that white Europeans were genetically superior
Self-Strengthening Movement
Chinese policy to industrialize without using any outside help
spheres of influence
in China
Suez Canal
connects Mediterranean & Red Sea; in Egypt; British controlled
suffrage
right to vote
union
organization that fights for the rights of workers in a particular job
open door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China
Opium Wars
war between Great Britain and China, began as a conflict over the opium trade, ended with the Chinese granting "unequal treaties"
Panama Canal (1904)
The United States built the Panama Canal to have a quicker passage to the Pacific from the Atlantic and vice versa
Reign of Terror
1793 to 1794, when Robespierre ruled France nearly as a dictator and thousands of political figures and ordinary citizens were executed
1750
start of the Industrial Revolution; moving from farms to factories
Karl Marx
co-wrote, Communist Manifesto with Fredrich Engles defining history as a "class struggle"
unequal treaties
treaties between China and the Western powers that favored the Western powers trade rights
American Revolution
major cause “no taxation without representation;” was aided by the French during the war; Declaration of Independence is written
1756-1763
7 years war/French and Indian War
1776
American Revolution begins/ Adam Smith writes Wealth of Nations
1789
French Revolution
1804
Haitian independence led by Toussaint L'Ouverture
1815
Congress of Vienna-European conference to settle territorial dispute after Napoleonic Wars
1820s
Independence in Latin America
1839
1st opium war in China
1848
European revolutions/Marx & Engles write Communist Manifesto
Taiping rebellion (1850- 1864)
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing dynasty
1853
Commodore Perry opens Japan
1857
Sepoy Mutiny rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India b/c of pig and cow fat on ammunition
1861
end of Russian serfdom / Italian unification
1863
Emancipation Proclamation in US- slaves in southern states are freed
1871
German unification- solidifying country
1885
Berlin Conference- meeting for the division of Africa
Sino-Japanese war (1894-95)
war between China and Japan over Korean peninsula
1898
Spanish-American War, USA acquires Philippines, Cuba, Guam, and Puerto Rico
1899
Boer War- British take control of South Africa