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Level 4

Unit 4 (1450-1750 CE)


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absolutism
having total power (kings)
cash crop
crops grown with purpose of selling
circumnavigate
sail around the world (Ferdinand Magellan was the 1st explorer to do this)
colonization
take over foreign place and then move your people there
currency
money
devshirme system
Ottoman system that made Christian boys slaves and converted into Muslim soldiers (draft); often called blood tax
divine right
Power to rule from God
harem
Room full of servant women
humanism
belief that humans can accomplish great things if educated
mercantilism
Try to have more exports than imports
monastic
dealing with the lives of monks or nuns
monopoly
One business controls market for a good or service
vernacular
writing in the language you speak
Age of Reason
the Enlightenment; time when people question role of government
Akbar the Great
Mughal emperor who promoted religious tolerance of the Hindus in India
Columbian Exchange
New trade routes between Old and New worlds
Christopher Columbus
discovered Americas on accident; 1492
Nicolaus Copernicus
develops Heliocentric Theory (sun
Counter-Reformation
Catholic reaction to Protestant Reformation (torture
Eastern Orthodox
religion like Catholic without Pope; Byzantine religion
Elizabeth I of England
Female Queen that beat Spanish; made England most powerful in world
Encomienda System
labor system that gave Spanish colonist the right to demand tribute and force labor from the Indian inhabitants of an area.
English Bill of Rights
limited power of king in England
European Exploration
Marco Polo encouraged because Euros want to trade with Asia faster
printing press
machine that made easier to print books faster (Guttenberg)
Henry (Tudor) VIII
6 wives; made England a protestant nation to get a divorce
Heliocentric Theory
sun is in center of solar system
indulgences
forgiveness for money
janissary
Ottoman soldiers specialize in using GUNS
Martin Luther
leader of Protestant Reformation (95 theses)
Louis XIV
absolute ruler in France (Palace of Versailles)
Manchu (Qing) Dynasty
last dynasty of China; Manchus from Manchuria; unpopular as not from China
Montezuma II
last emperor of Aztecs before Spanish came
Mughal Empire
Muslim Mongols who ruled India (gunpowder)
Peter the Great
Russian czar who wanted to westernize Russia and find warm water port
Potosi
city in South America built around large silver mines
silver trade
massive inflation in silver; China wanted all the Spanish silver from the Americas
Protestant Reformation
movement with Martin Luther protesting abuse of the Roman Catholic Church
Renaissance
rebirth of Greek and Roman culture; ending Middle Ages
Isaac Newton
scientist from England (gravity & laws of motion)
Galileo Galilei
scientists who challenged Catholic Church (telescope)
Scientific Revolution
bunch of scientists doing science
social contract
people have right to overthrow government (Rousseau)
John Locke
Natural Rights (life
Shogun
military leader in Japan (acts like a king)
Zheng He
Chinese explorer who traveled further than most until Chinese government ordered him to stop as they did not want outside influence
Middle Passage
Middle of Atlantic Ocean where slaves were on boats
Thirty Years War
war after the Protestant Reformation between Catholics and Protestants to control northern Europe (Protestants win)
Serfdom
People live on and farm land but cannot leave without Lord’s permission
sugar trade
Brazilian sugar; demand high; more slaves needed; plantations
smallpox
disease that killed 90% of native americans
plantation monoculture
growing one crop over and over on a large farm
Bartolome De Las Casas
Spanish priest who wrote about bad treatment of natives; suggested getting the Africans instead
mestizos
mix of European and natives
mulattos
mix of Europeans and Africans
capitalism
economic system that is based on the private ownership of property and on investments with the hope of profit.
fur trade
France and Russia trying to trap N. American mammals to sell fur
caravel
small,maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese