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Sculpture. Murornate elements


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Murornate sculpture elements
Elevations of the general surface. Examples: cristae, muri.
Murus
A ridge that is part of the ornamentation and, for example, separates the lumina in areticulate pollen grain or the striae in striate pollen grain.
Vallum
Synonym of murus.
Lumen
The space enclosed by the muri.
Brochus
A brochus consists of one lumen of a reticulum and half of the width of the adjacentmuri.
Crista
A crest-like ornamentation element, taller than it is wide, characterized by a narrowly curved base and a sharp upper edge. Example: Cristatisporites
Striate
A general descriptive term applied in palynology to elongated, generally parallel elements separated by grooves.
Rugulate
Describing a type of ornamentation consisting of elongated sexine elements more than 1µm long, arranged in an irregular pattern that is intermediate between striate andreticulate.
Corrugate
Synonym of rugulate.
Granum
The combined elements gemmae and verrucae.
Reticulum
A network-like pattern consisting of lumina or other spaces wider than 1µm bordered by elements narrower than the lumina.
Angustimurate
With narrow muri.
Hamulate
Describing a form of rugulate ornamentation consisting of irregularly arranged, winding, or angular rounded muri of varying thickness, which do not form a distinct reticulum, but rather a maze-like pattern.
Lira
A narrow ridge which forms the murus in a striate pattern.
Duplibaculate
Synonym of duplicolumellate.
Heterobrochate
Describing a reticulum with brochi of different sizes. Examples: Adoxa Moschatelina(Adoxaceae), Forsythia europaea (Oleaceae).
Latimurate
Describing a pollen grain or spore with broad muri.
Multibaculate
Synonym of pluricolumellate.
Ornate
Describing a reticulate ornamentation consisting of broad, curved muri and lumina that are often anastomosing. Example: Ceiba aesculifolia (Bombacaceae).
Per-reticulate
Structural elements fused distally forming an open reticulum.
Pluricolumellate
With the columellae arranged in several rows beneath each murus.
Rectimurate
Describing a pollen grain or spore with more or less straight muri.
Striato-reticulate
Describing a pattern in which parallel or subparallel muri are cross-linked to form areticulum in the grooves. The connections between the muri lie on a single level or different levels. Example: Gentiana pneumonathe (Gentianaceae).