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Projections from the general surface. Examples: bacula, pila, verrucae, spines.
A cylindrical, free standing exine element more than 1µm in length and less than this in diameter. Example: Raistrickia saetosa.
Cone-shaped elements on the surface of spores in which the height is less than two times the basal diameter and the apex is pointed, blunt or rounded. Example: Lophotriletes mosaicus.
A general word, applied in palynology to long and tapering pointed elements, exceeding 1µm.
Small spines, less than 3µm in length.
Synonym of Spine.
A wart-like sexine element, more than 1µm wide, that is broader than it is high and is not constricted at the base. Example: Plantago (Plantaginaceae).
Synonym of verrucate.
A relatively large element of the outer wall of a spore consisting of a sharply tapering spine and a broad bulbous base.
An equatorial or subequatorial extension of a spore, resembling a cingulum, but divided into fringe-like elements (fimbria). Example: Reinschospora speciosa.
Long, hair-like appendages (Jackson, 1928).
Synonym of fimbria.
General word for a small, rounded element.