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General. Basic terms


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Spore
A general term for the usually microscopic, unicellular, asexual or sexual reproductive units of cryptogams and fungi (Jackson, 1928).
Megaspore
A general term for large spores of heterosporous vascular plants (Jackson, 1928).
Amb
The outline of a pollen grain or spore seen in polar view.
Limb
Synonym of equatorial outline.
Contact area
Area on the proximal face of a spore interpreted as having been formed in contact with the other members of the tetrad. Example: Retusotriletes pythovii.
Cavate
In spore terminology, a synonym for camerate.
Curvatura
A line in trilete spores, extending from the extremities of the ends of the radii of thelaesura and thus delimiting the contact areas. Examples: Laevigatisporites glabratus,Divisisporites divisus.
Distal face
That part of a palynomorph that faces outwards the centre of the tetrad, between equatorand distal pole.
Proximal
A common descriptive term (Jackson, 1928) used in contrast to distal, applied inpalynology to features on the surface that faces towards the centre of the tetrad during development (Wodehouse, 1935).
Proximal face
That part of a palynomorph which faces towards the centre of the tetrad, betweenequator and proximal pole.
Pole
Either of the two extremities of the polar axis.
Proximal pole
The centre of the proximal face.
Distal pole
The centre of the surface of the distal face.
Commissure
The slit or line of dehiscence in the laesura.
Apex
A general term for the tip of an organ (Jackson, 1928).
Suture
Synonym of commissure.
Equatorial axis
Often misappropriately used as a synonym of equatorial diameter.
Interradial
Referring to areas of the proximal face or the equatorial periphery of trilete spores, lying between the radial arms of the laesurae.
Gula
A rather ornate projecting, neck-like, extension on the proximal face of a trilete spore. Example: Lagenicula horrida.
Radius
A general term, used in palynology for a laesura in trilete spores.
Aperture
A specialized region of the (sporoderm, that is thinner than the remainder of the sporoderm and generally differs in ornamentation and/or in structure.
Radial
A general term describing features radiating from a centre. Applied in palynology to the region of a spore beyond the ends of the laesurae.
Monolete
Describing a spore with a single laesura. Example: Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae).
Trilete
Describing a spore with three laesurae, thus showing a trilete mark. Example: Pteridium(Hypolepidaceae).
Y-mark
Synonym of trilete mark.
Trilete mark
The triradiate mark of a trilete spore.
Impression mark
A mark on the proximal face of a pollen grain retained from the post-meiotic stage. This mark can be linear from tetragonal tetrads or Y-shaped from tetrahedral tetrads. Examples: Nypa fruticans, Howea belmooreana (Palmae).
Auricula
Synonym of valva.
Capsula
An outer structure of a spore projecting at the equator and completely enclosing the sporebody.
Labrum
The elevated and/or thickened part of a laesura between the commissure and the remainder of the proximal surface.
Kyrtome
A more or less arcuate fold or band in the interradial areas outside the (laesurae of triletespores. Examples: Ahrensisporites guerickei, Concavisporites rugulatus.
Torus
An arcuate invagination or protuberance of the exine more or less paralleling the laesuraof a spore in the interradial area.
Patella
Synonym of patina.
Patina
A thickening of the exine of spores that extends over the entire surface of one hemisphere. Example: Cingulatisporites, Patellasporites.
Alete
Describing a spore without a laesura.
P/E ratio
The ratio of the length of the polar axis (P) to the equatorial diameter (E).
Outline
A general descriptive word. Applied in descriptive terms like equatorial outline andoutline in polar view.
Polar axis
The straight line between the distal and proximal poles of a pollen grain or spore.
Retusoid
Describing a spore with prominent contact areas and curvaturae. Example:Retusotriletes.
Crassitude
Synonym of a thickening.
Isospore
A spore of a plant producing only one kind of spore (Jackson, 1928).
Isosporous
Describing plants producing only one kind of spore (Jackson, 1928).
Meridional
Describing longitudinal features on the surface of a pollen grain or spore which run along lines perpendicular to the equator.
Dissections
Rounded to elongated cavities in a cingulum or zona. Example: Vallatisporites ciliaris.
Shape classes
Categories of pollen and spore shape based on the relations between polar axis (P) andequatorial diameter (E).
Trema
Synonym of aperture.