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Ultrastructure. General element of the sexine/ecte


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Columella
A rod-like element of the sexine/ectexine, either supporting a tectum or a caput.
Caput
The expanded apex (head) of a columella.
Granulum
A very small and rounded element of the sexine/ectexine that is less than 1μm in all directions.
Clava
A club-shaped element of the sexine/ectexine that is higher than 1μm, with diameter smaller than height and thicker at the apex than the base.
Urceolate
Describing a type of ornamentation consisting of urn- shaped elements situated on the footlayer. Example: Pinanga aristata (Palmae).
Insula
Synonym of areola.
Frustillum
Synonym of areola.
Fossula
Synonym of areola.
Endosculpture
Sculpturing occurring on the inner surface of the nexine/endexine.
Digitate
With bacula or columellae which are branched distally into two or more parts. Example:Polygonum bistorta.
Conjunctate
With bacula or columellae which are branched proximally into two or more parts.