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Restless Earth


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Earthquake
Shaking movement of the Earth's crust
Fold mountains
Long, high mountain range formed by upfolding of sediments
Hazard
Natural hazards are short term events that threaten lives and property
Tectonic Plates
Large rock areas that make up the Earth's crust
Responses
Immediate actions after the event or in the long term
Effects
Primary, secondary, positive and negative
Tectonic Activity
Movement of the large rock plates of the Earth's crust
Tsunami
Giant sea wave travelling at high speed
Epicentre
Point on the Earth’s surface directly above the source of an earthquake
Focus
Underground source for an earthquake
Shield Volcano
Cone-shaped but with a wide base and gentle slopes. Made of lava only and has frequent eruptions but with little violence
Composite Volcano
Tall cone with a narrow base and steep sides, made of alternate layers of ash and lava. Eruptions can be very violent but are often irregualr with lond dormant periods
Destructive Plate Margin
Oceanic and continental plates collide, and oceanic plate forced down in a subduction zone eventually forming mountains and ocean trenches
Constructive Plate Margin
Plates move apart and magma rises to fill gap, often forming shield volcanoes and volcanic islands
Supervolcano
A volcano that erupts with a massive volume of material and are recognisable by their large caldera
Richter Scale
A logrithmic scale from 0-10 used to measure earthquakes
Conservative Plate Margin
Plates move past one another, commonly where earthquakes are caused
Convection Current
Hot liquid rock rises from the core then cools, flowing outwards and downwards where it is re-heated
Continental Crust
The oldest and lightest crust, which is also permanent
Oceanic Crust
Heavier crust that sinks at some plate boundries